Sustainability

Biodiversity Action Plan

Since 2011, KPO have been developing and implementing the Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP), which determines the core activities of the Company for conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems in the region in accordance with KPO Sustainable Development Charter.

The Biodiversity Action Plan includes the following tasks:

  • determination of the legal requirements, regulation, planning and taking into account the opinion of the third parties;
  • analysis of monitoring/baseline survey findings and existing information for the determination of the current state of the environment.
  • identification of priority ecosystems, habitats and species for protection;
  • evaluation of impacts and identification of the risks to biodiversity at the stages of the implementation of the project.
  • environmental monitoring and control on the project territory;
  • preparation of the list of planned biodiversity conservation actions;
  • reporting, stakeholders engagement and assessment of the effectiveness of environmental protection measures.

As part of the scope of work under the Plan, since 2012, such types of research have been carried out as monitoring of fauna and vegetation.

Fauna monitoring, carried out every three years, involves following 16 walking routes and study of 5 sites. Assessment of the condition of individual animals’ habitats as well as the size and composition of various systematic groups of animals are identified by visual surveys. Determining habitats, behaviour and direction of species’ movement, breeding grounds in accordance with the Guidance on Keeping records of Water birds (dated 1971) and Guidance on Keeping records of Mammals (dated 1987).

Flora monitoring is carried out on 27 sites in comparison with previous years. The research includes: geo-botanical description: abundance, phenophase, vitality and level of anthropogenic transformation. Besides, vegetation samples are periodically taken for the content of chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, sulphur, nitrates and petroleum products. Frequency — every 3 years.

It should be noted, that all kinds of hunting and fishing are banned on the territory of KOGCF as reflected in the internal «KOGCF Highly Controlled Zone» Procedure.

Fauna monitoring <sup>GRI 304-2</sup>

KOGCF territory fauna complex is a west steppe zoo-geographic site and appears to be primarily steppe in nature.

According to literary sources, potential diversity of animals in the area of the KOGCF accounts to some 122 species of terrestrial vertebrates, including amphibians −8, reptiles −13, mammals — 56 and more than 200 species of birds.

During the research, carried out by the Company on the territory of the KOGCF in 2018, 1 species of amphibians (8.3%), 3 species of reptiles (6.2%), 87 species of birds (17.4%) and 14 species of mammals (7.8% of the total composition of Kazakhstan fauna) were registered. The research identified 18 background species of birds, which comprise the core of ornithology, 10 of them are large ones. The rest birds appeared less often and in smaller numbers, and 22 species only appeared once in the number 1-4 birds.

Within the period from 2008 to 2018, there were no visible changes in the composition of the species of mammals, inhabiting the Field. Besides, no significant changes in the size and proportion of the species in biogenetic relations were identified.

The number of the river beavers within the KOGCF territory and in its vicinity decreased, but continues to remain high.

During the surveys and comparative analyses of the numbers of species, containing breakdowns for the years, no clear impact of the KOGCF production activity on the vital functions of the vertebrate animals of the Field were observed. On the contrary, the absence of agricultural activity, overall protection of the area, almost complete absence of the human disturbance factor has contributed to creating favourable conditions for the life cycles of local flora and fauna in the field, facilitating conservation of rare species.

Ichthyfauna monitoring

Ichthyofauna monitoring was performed for the first time in 2018.

According to the hydro biological studies data, the species richness of ichthyofauna in the area being studied, includes some 10 species of fishes, representing 3 bloodlines that relate to 3 orders. Most common species include: crucian carp, roach and perch. All the registered species, are well known and common to the internal Kazakhstan waters. (Kazakhstan Fishes, 1987-89).

Analysis of biological parameters and composition of fish population indicates that they are in satisfactory conditions.

Entomofauna monitoring

Entomofauna monitoring was performed for the first time in 2020.

During the entomofauna survey held, 349 species or subspecies of insects and spiders related to class 2, 14 orders, 103 bloodlines and 290 genus were revealed on 20 monitoring sites of KOGCF.

Species diversity of entomofauna is given in the table below.

Three (3) types of insects listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Kazakhstan (dated 2006) were revealed within the territory of the KOGCF.

Emperor dragonfly (Anax imperator Leach)

Bolivaria brachyptera Pall

Scoliid wasps (Scolia hirta)

One of the species is not listed in the Kazakhstan Red Data Book, - Iphiclides podalirius L. butterfly is characterised as depopulating species

Monitoring of vegetation <sup>GRI 304-2</sup>

Five (5) species listed in the Red Book of Kazakhstan and endangered species were recorded in the research area:

  1. Carnation andrzejowskianus (Dianthus andrzejowski)
  2. Schrenck’s tulip (Tulipa shrenkii)
  3. Woodland tulip (Tulipa biebersteiniana)
  4. Spring adonis (Adonis vernalis)
  5. Fischer’s star of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum fischeranum).

Out of the endemic species, (living in a limited geographical range) a short-bladed Astragalus (Astragalus brachylobus) is found.

In addition to the rare species , which grow on monitoring sites, the Russian grouse (Fritillaria ruthenica), a rare species confined to the territory of the water protection zone, was also recorded. In 2019, this species was registered on four sites near the tributaries of the Berezovka river. The total number was six (6) specimens.

There were no signs of the Field’s impact on the Russian grouse population involving any significant changes in the environment after the initial study in 2010. The overall increase in the number of plants suggests that this species is not under immediate threat of extinction in the territory of the Karachaganak field.

It should be noted that individual populations in each study area are very vulnerable to catastrophic impacts, such as disturbances of the earth surface; therefore, it is necessary to continue recording their presence when planning projects in this part of the Karachaganak Field.

The results of monitoring the vegetation cover show that the main negative impact factor on vegetation as a result of production activities at the Karachaganak Field is the physical impact: grazing, agricultural activities and mechanical disturbances associated with KPO activities (laying trenches, pipelines, construction of facilities, roads, etc.). The most disturbed communities are distributed near the Field’s infrastructure and along the outskirts of roads.
The soil and vegetation cover’ monitoring data did not reveal any negative impact from air pollutant emissions associated with KPO’s production activities. The state of vegetation in the Karachaganak Field can be described as satisfactory.

Implementation of KPO Biodiversity Action Plan for 2011-2020

 Since 2011, KPO have been implementing activities in consistency with the Biodiversity Action Plan as shown in the table below.

Stage

Year

Research studies

1

2011

Development of the Biodiversity Action Plan for 2012-2013

2012

Fauna monitoring within the KOGCF, including the recording of rare fauna species.

2013

Flora monitoring within the KOGCF impact area by four drivers: air emissions, physical disturbance, water abstraction and grazing;

  • review of satellite images for three periods to identify changes in ecosystems;
  • mapping of the riverine ecosystems of KOGCF water bodies - the Berezovka river, the Konchubai gully.

2

2014

Development of the Biodiversity Action Plan for 2015-2016.

2015

Fauna monitoring, including:

  • mapping of air emissions and contaminants concentration in the soil;
  • research of wildlife species diversity (mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles) within the KOGCF with consideration of the KPO operations impact;
  • research of significant species of animals including beavers in the area of the Konchubai gully and the Berezovka river;
  • database update of species inhabiting the KOGCF area based on the results of fauna monitoring.

2016

Flora monitoring, including:

  • vegetation monitoring in respect of air emissions, physical disturbance, grazing, effects of the water abstraction;
  • further monitoring of distribution of the rare Russian Fritillary that grows in the areas of the Konchubai gully and the Berezovka river.

3

2017

Development of the Biodiversity Action Plan for 2018-2020 in accordance with the Guide to biodiversity action plans for the oil and gas sector published by IPIECA/IOGP.

2018

  • Continued monitoring of fauna and flora in order to obtain the data on the dynamics of the species diversity state;
  • Continued recording of significant animal species, including beavers, on the territory of the Konchubai gully and the Berezovka River.
  • Ichthyofauna research study in the water bodies of the KOGCF;

2019

  • Continue monitoring of flora, including recording of rare significant species;
  • Monitoring the dynamics of riverine vegetation for the purpose of integrated assessment of biodiversity and the general state of ecosystems in the territory;

2020

  • Research on the invertebrates’ species diversity (monitoring of entomofauna) in the territory of the KOGCF.
     
  • Preparation of the Biodiversity Action Plan for the KOGCF covering the period 2021-2023.